Think of it as the default filter. LPD expects every printer to be able to print plain text by default, and it is the text filter's job to make sure backspaces, tabs, or other special characters do not confuse the printer. If you are in an environment where you have to account for printer usage, the text filter must also account for pages printed, usually by counting the number of lines printed and comparing that to the number of lines per page the printer supports.
The text filter is started with the following argument list:. A conversion filter converts a specific file format into one the printer can render onto paper. For example, ditroff typesetting data cannot be directly printed, but you can install a conversion filter for ditroff files to convert the ditroff data into a form the printer can digest and print. Section Conversion Filters tells all about them. Conversion filters also need to do accounting, if you need printer accounting.
Conversion filters are started with the following arguments:. The output filter is used only if there is no text filter, or if header pages are enabled. In my experience, output filters are rarely used. Section Output Filters describe them. There are only two arguments to an output filter:. Filters should also exit with the following exit status:. If the filter failed to print the file but wants LPD to try to print the file again. LPD will restart a filter if it exits with this status.
If the filter failed to print the file and does not want LPD to try again. LPD will throw out the file. It uses the login, host, and accounting file arguments to make the accounting entries. If you are shopping for filters, see if they are LPD-compatible. If they are, they must support the argument lists described above.
If you plan on writing filters for general use, then have them support the same argument lists and exit codes. If you are the only user of your computer and PostScript or other language-based printer, and you promise to never send plain text to your printer and to never use features of various programs that will want to send plain text to your printer, then you do not need to worry about this section at all.
But, if you would like to send both PostScript and plain text jobs to the printer, then you are urged to augment your printer setup. To do so, we have the text filter detect if the arriving job is plain text or PostScript. If those are the first two characters in the job, we have PostScript , and can pass the rest of the job directly.
If those are not the first two characters in the file, then the filter will convert the text into PostScript and print the result. If you have got a serial printer, a great way to do it is to install lprps. But more importantly, it includes a program called psif which detects whether the incoming job is plain text and calls textps another program that comes with lprps to convert it to PostScript. It then uses lprps to send the job to the printer. You can fetch, build and install it yourself, of course.
After installing lprps , just specify the pathname to the psif program that is part of lprps. You should also specify the rw capability; that tells LPD to open the printer in read-write mode. If you have a parallel PostScript printer and therefore cannot use two-way communication with the printer, which lprps needs , you can use the following shell script as the text filter:. In the above script, textps is a program we installed separately to convert plain text to PostScript.
You can use any text-to- PostScript program you wish. PostScript is the de facto standard for high quality typesetting and printing. PostScript is, however, an expensive standard. Ghostscript can read most PostScript files and can render their pages onto a variety of devices, including many brands of non-PostScript printers.
By installing Ghostscript and using a special text filter for your printer, you can make your non PostScript printer act like a real PostScript printer. You can fetch, build, and install it quite easily yourself, as well. To simulate PostScript , we have the text filter detect if it is printing a PostScript file. If it is not, then the filter will pass the file directly to the printer; otherwise, it will use Ghostscript to first convert the file into a format the printer will understand.
Here is an example: the following script is a text filter for Hewlett Packard DeskJet printers. Type gs -h to get a list of devices the current installation of Ghostscript supports. Finally, you need to notify LPD of the filter via the if capability:. That is it. You can type lpr plain. After completing the simple setup described in Simple Printer Setup , the first thing you will probably want to do is install conversion filters for your favorite file formats besides plain ASCII text.
Conversion filters make printing various kinds of files easy. As an example, suppose we do a lot of work with the TeX typesetting system, and we have a PostScript printer. The command sequence goes like this:. By installing a conversion filter for DVI files, we can skip the hand conversion step each time by having LPD do it for us. Now, each time we get a DVI file, we are just one step away from printing it:. Section Formatting and Conversion Options lists the conversion options.
A conversion filter is like the text filter for the simple printer setup see section Installing the Text Filter except that instead of printing plain text, the filter converts the file into a format the printer can understand. You should install the conversion filters you expect to use. If you have got plenty of troff to print out, then you probably want a troff filter. At your site, you can give new meanings to these or any of the formatting options just by installing custom filters.
For example, suppose you would like to directly print Printerleaf files files from the Interleaf desktop publishing program , but will never print plot files. In our example, we will add the DVI conversion filter to the entry for the printer named bamboo.
Here is that script:. This script runs dvips in filter mode the -f argument on standard input, which is the job to print. Since there is no fixed set of steps to install conversion filters, let me instead provide more examples. Use these as guidance to making your own filters. Use them directly, if appropriate. The following script is a conversion filter for troff data from the groff typesetting system for the PostScript printer named bamboo :. The above script makes use of lprps again to handle the communication with the printer. If the printer were on a parallel port, we would use this script instead:.
We will install it for the printer teak :. Here is one final, somewhat complex example. Now, for the hard part: making the filter. It wants to work with a filename. What is worse, the filename has to end in. We can get around that problem by linking symbolically a temporary file name one that ends in. Symbolic links are owned by user and group bin.
The filter runs as user daemon. The filter can create the link, but it will not be able clean up when done and remove it since the link will belong to a different user. All these conversion filters accomplish a lot for your printing environment, but at the cost forcing the user to specify on the lpr 1 command line which one to use.
If your users are not particularly computer literate, having to specify a filter option will become annoying. What is worse, though, is that an incorrectly specified filter option may run a filter on the wrong type of file and cause your printer to spew out hundreds of sheets of paper.
Rather than install conversion filters at all, you might want to try having the text filter since it is the default filter detect the type of file it has been asked to print and then automatically run the right conversion filter. Tools such as file can be of help here. Of course, it will be hard to determine the differences between some file types--and, of course, you can still provide conversion filters just for them.
The LPD spooling system supports one other type of filter that we have not yet explored: an output filter. An output filter is intended for printing plain text only, like the text filter, but with many simplifications. If you are using an output filter but no text filter, then:. LPD starts an output filter once for the entire job instead of once for each file in the job. LPD does not make any provision to identify the start or the end of files within the job for the output filter.
LPD does not pass the user's login or host to the filter, so it is not intended to do accounting. In fact, it gets only two arguments:. Where width is from the pw capability and length is from the pl capability for the printer in question.
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Do not be seduced by an output filter's simplicity. If you would like each file in a job to start on a different page an output filter will not work. Use a text filter also known as an input filter ; see section Installing the Text Filter. Furthermore, an output filter is actually more complex in that it has to examine the byte stream being sent to it for special flag characters and must send signals to itself on behalf of LPD.
However, an output filter is necessary if you want header pages and need to send escape sequences or other initialization strings to be able to print the header page. But it is also futile if you want to charge header pages to the requesting user's account, since LPD does not give any user or host information to the output filter.
On a single printer, LPD allows both an output filter and text or other filters. In such cases, LPD will start the output filter to print the header page see section Header Pages only. If there is an output filter but no text filter and LPD is working on a plain text job, LPD uses the output filter to do the job. As stated before, the output filter will print each file of the job in sequence with no intervening form feeds or other paper advancement, and this is probably not what you want.
In almost all cases, you need a text filter. The program lpf , which we introduced earlier as a text filter, can also run as an output filter. If you need a quick-and-dirty output filter but do not want to write the byte detection and signal sending code, try lpf. You can also wrap lpf in a shell script to handle any initialization codes the printer might require.
It can also act like an output filter. And although it has no capability to send initialization sequences to a printer, it is easy to write a shell script to do the needed initialization and then execute lpf. It uses these values to determine how much text can fit on a page and how many pages were in a user's job.
For more information on printer accounting, see Accounting for Printer Usage. If you have lots of users, all of them using various printers, then you probably want to consider header pages as a necessary evil. Header pages, also known as banner or burst pages identify to whom jobs belong after they are printed. They are usually printed in large, bold letters, perhaps with decorative borders, so that in a stack of printouts they stand out from the real documents that comprise users' jobs.
They enable users to locate their jobs quickly. The obvious drawback to a header page is that it is yet one more sheet that has to be printed for every job, their ephemeral usefulness lasting not more than a few minutes, ultimately finding themselves in a recycling bin or rubbish heap. Note that header pages go with each job, not each file in a job, so the paper waste might not be that bad. The LPD system can provide header pages automatically for your printouts if your printer can directly print plain text.
If you have a PostScript printer, you will need an external program to generate the header page; see Header Pages on PostScript Printers. To enable header pages for a printer, just remove the sh capability. You are right. You might have to provide an output filter to send initialization strings to the printer. Specify the path to the output filter in the of capability.
See the Output Filters section for more information. Now, when users print jobs to teak , they get a header page with each job. If users want to spend time searching for their printouts, they can suppress header pages by submitting the job with lpr -h ; see the Header Page Options section for more lpr 1 options.
Notatka: LPD prints a form feed character after the header page. By enabling header pages, LPD will produce a long header , a full page of large letters identifying the user, host, and job. Here is an example kelly printed the job named outline from host rose :. The header page will look like this:. Also by default, LPD prints the header page first, then the job. Using LPD 's built-in header pages enforces a particular paradigm when it comes to printer accounting: header pages must be free of charge.
Because the output filter is the only external program that will have control when the header page is printed that could do accounting, and it is not provided with any user or host information or an accounting file, so it has no idea whom to charge for printer use. They could still be charged for header pages they did not print. Basically, lpr -h will be the preferred option of environmentally-minded users, but you cannot offer any incentive to use it. It is still not enough to have each of the filters generate their own header pages thereby being able to charge for them. If users wanted the option of suppressing the header pages with lpr -h , they will still get them and be charged for them since LPD does not pass any knowledge of the -h option to any of the filters.
Write a smart output filter. Normally, an output filter is not meant to do anything more than initialize a printer or do some simple character conversion. It is suited for header pages and plain text jobs when there is no text input filter. But, if there is a text filter for the plain text jobs, then LPD will start the output filter only for the header pages. And the output filter can parse the header page text that LPD generates to determine what user and host to charge for the header page.
The only other problem with this method is that the output filter still does not know what accounting file to use it is not passed the name of the file from the af capability , but if you have a well-known accounting file, you can hard-code that into the output filter. Then again, all that might be too much trouble, and users will certainly appreciate the more generous system administrator who makes header pages free. As described above, LPD can generate a plain text header page suitable for many printers. Of course, PostScript cannot directly print plain text, so the header page feature of LPD is useless--or mostly so.
One obvious way to get header pages is to have every conversion filter and the text filter generate the header page. The filters should use the user and host arguments to generate a suitable header page. The drawback of this method is that users will always get a header page, even if they submit jobs with lpr -h.
Let us explore this method. The following script takes three arguments user login name, host name, and job name and makes a simple PostScript header page:. Now, each of the conversion filters and the text filter can call this script to first generate the header page, and then print the user's job. Here is the DVI conversion filter from earlier in this document, modified to make a header page:. Notice how the filter has to parse the argument list in order to determine the user and host name. The parsing for the other conversion filters is identical. The text filter takes a slightly different set of arguments, though see section How Filters Work.
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If users wanted to save a tree or a few pennies, if you charge for header pages , they would not be able to do so, since every filter's going to print a header page with every job. To allow users to shut off header pages on a per-job basis, you will need to use the trick introduced in section Accounting for Header Pages : write an output filter that parses the LPD-generated header page and produces a PostScript version. If the user submits the job with lpr -h , then LPD will not generate a header page, and neither will your output filter.
Otherwise, your output filter will read the text from LPD and send the appropriate header page PostScript code to the printer. If you have a PostScript printer on a serial line, you can make use of lprps , which comes with an output filter, psof , which does the above. Note that psof does not charge for header pages. FreeBSD supports networked printing: sending jobs to remote printers. Networked printing generally refers to two different things:. Accessing a printer attached to a remote host. You install a printer that has a conventional serial or parallel interface on one host.
Then, you set up LPD to enable access to the printer from other hosts on the network. Section Printers Installed on Remote Hosts tells how to do this. Accessing a printer attached directly to a network. The printer has a network interface in addition or in place of a more conventional serial or parallel interface. Such a printer might work as follows:. It might understand the LPD protocol and can even queue jobs from remote hosts. In this case, it acts just like a regular host running LPD.
Follow the same procedure in section Printers Installed on Remote Hosts to set up such a printer. It might support a data stream network connection. Section Printers with Networked Data Stream Interfaces gives some suggestions on installing such printers. This feature enables you to install a printer on one host and make it accessible from other hosts.
It also works with printers that have network interfaces that understand the LPD protocol. To enable this kind of remote printing, first install a printer on one host, the printer host , using the simple printer setup described in the Simple Printer Setup section. Do any advanced setup in Advanced Printer Setup that you need. Make sure to test the printer and see if it works with the features of LPD you have enabled. If you are using a printer with a network interface that is compatible with LPD , then the printer host in the discussion below is the printer itself, and the printer name is the name you configured for the printer.
Name the entry anything you want. For simplicity, though, you probably want to use the same name and aliases as on the printer host. Make a spooling directory and specify its location in the sd capability. LPD will store jobs here before they get sent to the printer host. Place the printer name on the printer host in the rp capability. Here is an example.
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The host rose has two printers, bamboo and rattan. We will enable users on the host orchid to print to those printers. It already had the entry for the printer teak ; we have added entries for the two printers on the host rose :. Now, users on orchid can print to rattan and bamboo. If, for example, a user on orchid typed. Often, when you buy a network interface card for a printer, you can get two versions: one which emulates a spooler the more expensive version , or one which just lets you send data to it as if you were using a serial or parallel port the cheaper version.
This section tells how to use the cheaper version. For the more expensive one, see the previous section Printers Installed on Remote Hosts. To send data to a networked printer, you need to develop a communications program that can be called by the text and conversion filters. Here is one such example: the script netprint takes all data on standard input and sends it to a network-attached printer.
We specify the hostname of the printer as the first argument and the port number to which to connect as the second argument to netprint. Note that this supports one-way communication only FreeBSD to printer ; many network printers support two-way communication, and you might want to take advantage of that to get printer status, perform accounting, etc. We can then use this script in various filters. Suppose we had a Diablo N line printer connected to the network. The printer accepts data to print on port number The host name of the printer is scrivener.
Here is the text filter for the printer:. This section gives information on restricting printer usage. The LPD system lets you control who can access a printer, both locally or remotely, whether they can print multiple copies, how large their jobs can be, and how large the printer queues can get. The LPD system makes it easy for users to print multiple copies of a file.
Users can print jobs with lpr - 5 for example and get five copies of each file in the job. Whether this is a good thing is up to you. When users submit jobs with the - option, they will see:. The printer rattan is quite hearty, so we will allow multiple copies, but the laser printer bamboo is a bit more delicate, so we will disable multiple copies by adding the sc capability:.
By using the sc capability, we prevent the use of lpr - , but that still does not prevent users from running lpr 1 multiple times, or from submitting the same file multiple times in one job like this:. Just place the users you want to have access to a printer in a certain group, and then name that group in the rg capability. As with the sc suppress multiple copies capability, you need to specify rg on remote hosts that also have access to your printers, if you feel it is appropriate see section Printers Installed on Remote Hosts.
For example, we will let anyone access the printer rattan , but only those in group artists can use bamboo. Of course, anyone on orchid can print to bamboo. It might be the case that we only allow certain logins on orchid anyway, and want them to have access to the printer. Or not. If you have many users accessing the printers, you probably need to put an upper limit on the sizes of the files users can submit to print. After all, there is only so much free space on the filesystem that houses the spooling directories, and you also need to make sure there is room for the jobs of other users.
LPD enables you to limit the maximum byte size a file in a job can be with the mx capability. If you put a zero for this capability, there will be no limit on file size; however, if no mx capability is specified, then a default limit of blocks will be used. Notatka: The limit applies to files in a job, and not the total job size. LPD will not refuse a file that is larger than the limit you place on a printer. Instead, it will queue as much of the file up to the limit, which will then get printed. The rest will be discarded.
Whether this is correct behavior is up for debate. Let us add limits to our example printers rattan and bamboo. Since those artists' PostScript files tend to be large, we will limit them to five megabytes. We will put no limit on the plain text line printer:. Again, the limits apply to the local users only.
If you have set up access to your printers remotely, remote users will not get those limits. See section Printers Installed on Remote Hosts for more information on remote printing. There is another specialized way to limit job sizes from remote printers; see section Restricting Jobs from Remote Printers. The LPD spooling system provides several ways to restrict print jobs submitted from remote hosts:. LPD checks to see if an incoming request is from a host listed in either one of these files.
If not, LPD refuses the request. The format of these files is simple: one host name per line. This means rose will accept requests from the hosts orchid , violet , and madrigal. If any other host tries to access rose 's LPD , the job will be refused. You can control how much free space there needs to remain on the filesystem where a spooling directory resides. Make a file called minfree in the spooling directory for the local printer. Insert in that file a number representing how many disk blocks bytes of free space there has to be for a remote job to be accepted.
This lets you insure that remote users will not fill your filesystem. You can also use it to give a certain priority to local users: they will be able to queue jobs long after the free disk space has fallen below the amount specified in the minfree file. For example, let us add a minfree file for the printer bamboo.
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The spooling directory is given in the sd capability. We will make three megabytes which is disk blocks the amount of free disk space that must exist on the filesystem for LPD to accept remote jobs:. When rs appears in the entry for a locally-attached printer, LPD will accept jobs from remote hosts if the user submitting the job also has an account of the same login name on the local host. Otherwise, LPD refuses the job. This capability is particularly useful in an environment where there are for example different departments sharing a network, and some users transcend departmental boundaries.
By giving them accounts on your systems, they can use your printers from their own departmental systems. So, you need to charge for printouts. And why not? Paper and ink cost money. And then there are maintenance costs--printers are loaded with moving parts and tend to break down. You have examined your printers, usage patterns, and maintenance fees and have come up with a per-page or per-foot, per-meter, or per-whatever cost. Now, how do you actually start accounting for printouts? Well, the bad news is the LPD spooling system does not provide much help in this department.
Accounting is highly dependent on the kind of printer in use, the formats being printed, and your requirements in charging for printer usage. To implement accounting, you have to modify a printer's text filter to charge for plain text jobs and the conversion filters to charge for other file formats , to count pages or query the printer for pages printed. You cannot get away with using the simple output filter, since it cannot do accounting.
See section Filters. Periodic accounting is the more common way, possibly because it is easier. Whenever someone prints a job, the filter logs the user, host, and number of pages to an accounting file. Every month, semester, year, or whatever time period you prefer, you collect the accounting files for the various printers, tally up the pages printed by users, and charge for usage.
Then you truncate all the logging files, starting with a clean slate for the next period. Timely accounting is less common, probably because it is more difficult. This method has the filters charge users for printouts as soon as they use the printers. Like disk quotas, the accounting is immediate. The LPD spooling system supports both methods easily: since you have to provide the filters well, most of the time , you also have to provide the accounting code. But there is a bright side: you have enormous flexibility in your accounting methods. For example, you choose whether to use periodic or timely accounting.
You choose what information to log: user names, host names, job types, pages printed, square footage of paper used, how long the job took to print, and so forth. And you do so by modifying the filters to save this information. FreeBSD comes with two programs that can get you set up with simple periodic accounting right away.
They are the text filter lpf , described in section lpf: a Text Filter , and pac 8 , a program to gather and total entries from printer accounting files. As mentioned in the section on filters Filters , LPD starts the text and the conversion filters with the name of the accounting file to use on the filter command line. The filters can use this argument to know where to write an accounting file entry. LPD starts lpf with page width and length arguments from the pw and pl capabilities. After sending the file to the printer, it then writes an accounting entry in the accounting file.
The entries look like this:. You should use a separate accounting file for each printer, as lpf has no file locking logic built into it, and two lpf s might corrupt each other's entries if they were to write to the same file at the same time. Then, each accounting file will be in the spooling directory for a printer, in a file named acct.
When you are ready to charge users for printouts, run the pac 8 program. Just change to the spooling directory for the printer you want to collect on and type pac. You will get a dollar-centric summary like the following:. These are the arguments pac 8 expects:. Which printer to summarize. Ignore host name in the accounting files.
With this option, user smith on host alpha is the same user smith on host gamma. Without, they are different users. You can specify price as a floating point number. In the default summary that pac 8 produces, you see the number of pages printed by each user from various hosts.
If, at your site, host does not matter because users can use any host , run pac -m , to produce the following summary:. Specify, in hundredths of cents, the price per page or per foot you want to charge for printouts in this capability. You can override this value when you run pac 8 with the -p option. The units for the -p option are in dollars, though, not hundredths of cents. For example,. It then truncates the accounting file. When you run pac 8 again, it rereads the summary file to get starting totals, then adds information from the regular accounting file.
In order to perform even remotely accurate accounting, you need to be able to determine how much paper a job uses. This is the essential problem of printer accounting. For plain text jobs, the problem is not that hard to solve: you count how many lines are in a job and compare it to how many lines per page your printer supports. Do not forget to take into account backspaces in the file which overprint lines, or long logical lines that wrap onto one or more additional physical lines.
The text filter lpf introduced in lpf: a Text Filter takes into account these things when it does accounting. If you are writing a text filter which needs to do accounting, you might want to examine lpf 's source code. You might be able to do similar things with other file formats and conversion programs. But these methods suffer from the fact that the printer may not actually print all those pages.
For example, it could jam, run out of toner, or explode--and the user would still get charged.
There is only one sure way to do accurate accounting. Get a printer that can tell you how much paper it uses, and attach it via a serial line or a network connection. Nearly all PostScript printers support this notion. Other makes and models do as well networked Imagen laser printers, for example. Modify the filters for these printers to get the page usage after they print each job and have them log accounting information based on that value only. There is no line counting nor error-prone file examination required. This section tells you how to use printers you have set up with FreeBSD.
Here is an overview of the user-level commands:. There is also an administrative command, lpc 8 , described in the section Administering Printers , used to control printers and their queues. This enables you to submit, remove, and check on jobs for various printers. This prints each of the listed files to the default printer. If you list no files, lpr 1 reads data to print from standard input. For example, this command prints some important system files:. This example prints a long listing of the current directory to the printer named rattan :. Because no files were listed for the lpr 1 command, lpr read the data to print from standard input, which was the output of the ls -l command.
The lpr 1 command can also accept a wide variety of options to control formatting, apply file conversions, generate multiple copies, and so forth. For more information, see the section Printing Options. Each printer has a queue of jobs, and your job waits in that queue along with other jobs from yourself and from other users. The printer prints those jobs in a first-come, first-served order. To display the queue for the default printer, type lpq 1.
For a specific printer, use the -P option. For example, the command. This shows three jobs in the queue for bamboo. Afterwards, open the file with DragKnife to convert it into a specialized g-code for drag knives. After inspecting the outputted g-code, you are ready to use a drag knife on your CNC. For inspection, we recommend NC Viewer which can be also downloaded here in the app store.
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Most of my paths needs to be converted or reworked to get a proper cut. Downloaded the installation file from the virbox website 2. So far it seems to work, but will see next time when I run it on the w2k laptop BTW: is the launcher you use done in nsis or autoit? Otto SykoraBasel, Switzerland Top Log in or register to post comments November 24, - am Reply to 11 12 ottosykora Offline Last seen: 2 days 10 hours ago Joined: what is the name of your one?
Otto SykoraBasel, Switzerland Top Log in or register to post comments November 24, - am 13 sergentsiler Offline Last seen: 1 month 4 weeks ago Joined: let me clear all of this up D, portable windows xp works with virtual box portable but it is not supported, encouraged, or in PAF format so we dont host it, you will have to search the net for it. Zoop Top Log in or register to post comments November 24, - am Reply to 13 14 reepicheep Offline Last seen: 6 years 9 months ago Joined: Not quite that clear A, we have a portable operating system, called Mac-On-Stick in the apps listingThat too may be illegal.
Apple always had it that copying their ROM, which this requires, was an infringement of their copyright and they considered it illegal. This may no longer be the case with the OS X yeah! Top Log in or register to post comments November 24, - am Reply to 14 15 ottosykora Offline Last seen: 2 days 10 hours ago Joined: if properly installed and properly activated, in some virtual environment, well then it is OK as long as it is not copied.
A Virtual machine is virtual and is fixed to its virtual hardware thus I do not see much illegal abt it. With some Vista, it explicitly allowed, let say an ultimate , you can build one VM in addition to your hard installation and with vista enterprise you could make 5 VM as far as I remember. Otto SykoraBasel, Switzerland Top Log in or register to post comments November 24, - am Reply to 15 16 sergentsiler Offline Last seen: 1 month 4 weeks ago Joined: well Zoop Top Log in or register to post comments November 24, - am Reply to 16 17 sergentsiler Offline Last seen: 1 month 4 weeks ago Joined: also Just New Apps Search for MOA 2.
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